The derivation of structural information from spectroscopic data is now an integral part of organic chemistry courses at all Universities. Over recent years, a number of powerful two-dimensional NMR techniques (e.g. HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY, COSY and NOESY) have been developed and these have vastly expanded the amount of structural information that can be obtained by NMR spectroscopy. Improvements in NMR instrumentation now mean that 2D NMR spectra are routinely (and sometimes automatically) acquired during the identification and characterisation of organic compounds.
Abstract:This is a broad overview and critical review of a particular group of closely related ex vivo and in vitro metabolic NMR spectroscopic methods. The scope of interest comprises studies of cultured cells and excised tissue, either intact or after physicochemical extraction of metabolites. Our detailed discussion includes pitfalls that have led to erroneous statements in the published literature, some of which may cause serious problems in metabolic and biological interpretation of results. To cover a wide range of work from relevant research areas, we consider not only the most recent achievements in the field, but also techniques that proved to be valid and successful in the past, although they may not have generated a very significant number of papers more recently. Thus, this comparative review also aims at providing background information useful for judiciously choosing between the metabolic ex vivo/in vitro NMR methods presented. Finally, the methods of interest are discussed in the context of, and in relation to, other metabolic analysis protocols such as HR-MAS and cell perfusion NMR, as well as the mass spectrometry approach.Keywords: in vitro NMR spectroscopy; tissue; cells; metabolism; extracts; heteronuclei 1e1e36bf2d